Testi magici: Of Occult Philosophy – Book III. (part 2) – Johannes Trithemius
Chapter XVIII Of the orders of evil spirits, and of their fall, and divers natures.
There are some of the School of the Theologians, who distribute the evill spirits into nine degrees, as contrary to the nine orders of the Angels; Therefone the first of these are those which are called false gods, who usurping the name of God, would be worshipped for gods, and require sacrifices and adorations, as that Devil, who saith to Christ, if thou wilt fal [fall] down and worship me, I will give thee all these things, shewing him all the kingdoms of the world; and the Prince of these is he who said, I will ascend ahove the height of the clouds, and will he like to the most High; who is therefore called Beelzebub, that is, an old god. In the second place follow the spirits of lies, of which sort was he who went forth, and was a lying spirit in the mouth of the Prophets of Achab; and the Prince of these is the Serpent Pytho; from whence Apollo is called Pythius, and that woman a witch in Samuel, and the other in the Gospel, who had Pytho m their belly. Therefore this kind of Devils joyneth himself to the Oracles, and deludeth men by divinations, and predictions, so that he may deceive. In the third order are the vessels of iniquity, which are also called the vessels of wrath, these are the inventors of evil things and of all wicked arts, as in Plato, that devill Theutus who taught Cards and Dice; for all wickedness, malice and deformity proceedeth from these; of the which in Genesis, in the Benedictions of Simeon and Levi, Jacob saith, vessels of iniquity are in their habitations; into their counsel let not my soul come; whom the Psalmist calleth vessels of death, Esay vessels of fury, and Jeremy vessels of wrath, Ezekiel vessels of destroying and slaying, and their prince is Belial, which is interpreted without a yoak [yoke] or disobedient, a prevaricator and an Apostate, of whom Paul to the Corinthians saith, what agreement hath Christ with Beliall? Fourthly follow the revengers of evil, and their Prince is Asmodeus, viz. causing judgement; After these in the fifth place come the deluders, who Imitate miracles, and serve wicked conjurers and witches, and seduce the people by their miracles, as the serpent seduced Eve, and their Prince is Satan, of whom is written in the Revelations, that he seduced the whole world, doing great signs, and causing fire to descend from heaven in the sight of men, seducing the inhabitants of the earth, by reason of the signs, which are given him to do. Sixthly the Aeriall powers offer themselves; they joyn [join] themselves to thundering and lightnings, corrupting the aire, causing pestilences and other evils; in the number of which, are the four Angels, of whom the Revelation speaketh, to whom it is given to hurt the Earth and Sea, holding the four windes, from the four corners of the earth; and their prince is called Meririm; he is the Meridian Devill, a boyling [boiling] spirit, a devill raging in the South, whom Paul to the Ephesians calleth the Prince of the power of this air, and the spirit which worketh in the children of disobedience. The seventh mansion the furies possess, which are powers of evil, discords, war and devastations, whose Prince in the Revelations is called in Greek Apollyon, in Hebrew Abaddon, that is destroying and wasting. In the eighth place are the accusers, or the inquisitors, whose Prince is Astarath [Astaroth], that is, a searcher out: in the Greek language he is called Diabolos, that is an accuser, or calumniator, which in the Revelations is called the accuser, of the brethren, accusing them night & day before the face of our God. Moreover the Tempters and Ensnarers have the last place, one of which is present with every man, which we therefore call the evill Genius, and their Prince is Mammon, which is interpreted covetousness: But all unanimously maintain that evil spirits do wander up & down in this inferiour world, enraged against all, whom they therefore call Devils, of whom Austin [Augustine] in his first hook of the incarnation of the word to Januarius, saith: Concerning the devils and his Angels contrary to Vertues, the Ecclesiasticall preaching hath taught, that there are such things; but what they are and how they are, he hath not clear enough expounded: yet there is this opinion amongst most, that this Devill was an Angel, and being made an Apostate, perswaded very many of the Angels to decline with himself, who even unto this day are called his Angels: Greece notwithstanding thinketh not that all these are damned, nor that they are all purposefully evil, but that from the Creation of the world, the dispensation of things is ordained by this means, that the tormenting of sinful souls is made over to them: The other Theologians say that not any Devill was created evill, but that they were driven and cast forth of Heaven, from the orders of good Angels for their pride, whose fall not only our and the Hebrew Theologians, but also the Assyrians, Arabians, Egyptians and Greeks do confirm by their tenents [tenets]; Pherecydes he Syrian describeth the fall of the Devils and that Ophis, that is, the Devilish serpent, was the head of that rebelling Army; Trismegistus sings the same fall in his Pimander, and Homer under the name of Ararus, in his verses; and Plutarch in his speech of usury, signifieth, that Empedocles knew that the fall of the devils was after this manner: the devils also themselves often confess their fall: they therefore being cast forth into this valley of misery, some that are nigh to us wander up and down in this obscure air, others inhabit lakes, rivers and seas, others the earth, and terrifie [terrify] earthly things, and invade those who dig Wells and Metals, cause the gapings of the earth, strike together the foundation of mountains, and vex not only men, but also other creatures; some being content with laughter and delusion only, do contrive rather to weary men, then to hurt them, some heightning themselves to the length of a Giants body, and again shrinking themselves up to the smallness of the Pigmies, and changing themselves into divers forms, do disturb men with vain fear: others study lies and blasphemies, as we read of one in the third book of Kings, saying, I will go forth and be a lying spirit in the mouth of all the Prophets of Achab: but the worst sort of devils are those, who lay wait and overthrow passengers in their journeys, and rejoyce in wars and effusion of blood, and afflict men with most cruell stripes: we read of such in Matthew, for fear of whom no man durst pass that way; moreover the scripture reckoneth up nocturnall, diurnall, and meridionall devils, and describeth other spirits of wickedness by divers names, as we read in Esay of Satyrs, Scrichowls [screech owls], Syrenes, storks, Owls; and in the Psalms of Aspes, Basiliskes, Lions, Dragons; and in the Gospel we read of Scorpions and Mammon and the prince of this world and rulers of darkness, of all which Beelzebub is the prince, whom Scripture calleth the prince of wickedness. Porphyrie [Porphyry] saith, their prince is Serapis, who is also called Pluto by the Greeks, and also Cerberus is chief amongst them, that three-headed dog: viz. Because he is conversant in three elements, air, water, and earth, a most pernicious devill; whence also Proserpina, who can do very much in these three elements, is their Princess, which she testifies of her self in her answers, in these verses.
Of threefold nature I Lucina fair,
The daughter am, sent from above the air;
The golden Phoebe am, and with heads trine,
Whom many forms do change, and the trine sign
Which I bear with forms of earth, fire, and air,
I for black mastives [mastiffs] of the earth do care.
Origen’s opinion concerning the devils, is: The spirits who act of their own free will, left the service of God with their Prince the devil; if they began to repent a little, are clothed with humane flesh; That further by this repentance, after the resurrection, by the same means by the which they came into the flesh, they might at the last return to the vision of God, being then also freed from etheriall and aeriall bodies, and then all knees are to be bowed to God, of Celestiall, Terrestrial, and Infernal things, that God may be all in all: Moreover Saint Ireneus approveth the opinion of Justine Martyr, who hath said, Satan never durst speak blasphemy against God, before that the Lord came on the earth, because that he knew not as yet his condemnation; but there are many of the devils who are fallen, who hope for their salvation: Very many think by the History of Paul the Hermite written by Jerome, & reverenced by the Church with Canonical hours, also by the Legend of Brandan, they are so taught; and even by this Argument they maintain that their prayers are heard; that we read in the Gospels, that Christ heard the prayers of the devils, and granted that they should enter into the Herd of Swine; to these also agreeth the 71. Psalm, according to our supputation, but according to the supputation of the Hebrews the 72, where we read, the Ethiopians shall fall before him, and his enemies lick the dust; there it is read according to the Hebrew text, they that inhabit the desert, shall bend their knees before him, that is, the aiery spirits shall adore him, as the Cabalists affirm, and his enemies shall lick the dust, which they understand of Zazell, and his Army: of which we read in Genesis, Dust shalt thou eat all the dayes of thy life, and elsewhere the Prophet saith, because the dust of the earth is his bread; hence the Cabalists think, that even some devils shall be saved, which opinion also it is manifest that Origen was of.
Chapter XIX Of the bodies of the Devils.
Concerning the bodies of Angels, there is a great dissension betwixt the late Divines, and Philosophers; for Thomas affirms that all angels are incorporeall, yea evil angels, yet that they do assume bodies sometimes, which after awhile they put off again; Dionysius in Divine Names strongly affirms that Angels are incorporeal. Yet Austin [Augustine] upon Genesis delivers his opinion, that Angels are said to be Aery, and Fiery Animals: because they have the nature of Aeriall bodies, neither can they be dissolved by death, because the element which is more active than passive is predominant in them; the same seem to affirm, that all Angels in the beginning of their creation had Aeriall bodies, being formed of the more pure, and superiour part of the air, being more fit to act, then to suffer; and that those bodies were after the confirmation preserved in good Angels, but changed in the evil in their fall, into the quality of more thick air, that they might be tormented in the fire: Moreover Magnus Basilius doth attribute bodies not only to Devils, but also to pure angels, as certain thin, Aeriall, pure spirits; to which Gregory Nazianzen doth agree. Apuleius was of opinion, that all angels had not bodies; for in the book of the Demon of Socrates, he saith, that there is a more propitious kind of spirits, which being alwayes free from corporeal bonds, are procured by certain prayers. But Psellus the Platonist, and Christianus do think that the nature of spirits is not without a body; but yet not that the body of angels, & devils are the same; for that is without matter; but the bodies of devils are in a manner materiall, as shadows, and subject to passion, that they being struck are pained, and may be burnt in the fire, into conspicuous ashes, which as is recorded, was done in Tuscia. And although it be a spirituall body, yet it is most sensible, and being touched, suffers; and although it be cut asunder, yet comes together again, as air and water, but yet in the mean time is much pained. Hence it is that they fear the edge of the sword, and any weapon. Hence in Virgil the Sybill saith to Aeneas,
Do thou go on thy way and draw thy sword.
Upon which Servius saith that she would have Aeneas have his sword consecrated. Orpheus also describes the kinds of Demoniacall bodies; there is indeed one body, which onely abides the fire, but being seen, doth not suffer, which Orpheus calls fiery, and Celestiall Demons: the other is contemperated with the mixtion of fire, and air, whence they are called Etheriall, and Aeriall; to which if any waterish thing was added, there arose a third kinde, whence they are Called watery, which sometimes are seen: to which if any earthiness be added, this is not very thick; they are called Terrene Demons, and they are more conspicuous, and sensible. Now the bodies of sublime Demons are nourished of the most pure Etheriall element, and are not rashly to be seen of any, unless they be sent from God; being weaved of such bright threads, and so small, that they transmit all the rayes of our sight by their finess, and reverberate them with splendor, and deceive by their subtlety; of which Calcidius saith, Etheriall, and Aeriall Demons, because their bodies have not so much fire as that they are conspicuous, nor yet so much earth that the solidity of them resists the touch, and their whole composure being made up of the clearness of the skie [sky], and moisture of the air, hath joyned [joined] together an indissoluble superficies. The other Demons are neither so appearable, nor invisible, being sometimes conspicuous are turned into divers figures, and put upon themselves bodies like shadows, of blood-less images, drawing the filthiness of a gross body, and they have too much communion with the Wood (which the Ancients did call the wicked soul) and by reason of their affinity with earth, and water, are also taken with Terrene pleasures, and lust; of which sort are hobgoblins, and Incubi, and Succubi, of which number it is no absurd conjecture to think that Melusina was: yet there is none of the Demons (as Mareus supposeth) is to be supposed male or female, seeing this difference of sex belongs to compounds, but the bodies of Demons are simple, neither can any of the Demons turn themselves into all shapes at their pleasure; but to the fiery, and aiery it is easie so to do, viz: to change themselves into what shapes their imagination conceives: now subterraneall and dark Demons, because their nature being concluded in the streights of a thick and unactive body, cannot make the diversity of shapes, as others can. But the waterie, and such as dwell upon the moist superfices of the earth, are by reason of the moistness of the element, for the most part like to women; of such kinde are the fairies of the Rivers, and Nymphs of the Woods: but those which inhabite dry places, being of dryer bodies, shew themselves in form of men, as Satyrs, or Onosceli, with Asses legs, or Fauni, and Incubi, of which he saith, he learned by experience there were many, and that some of them oftentimes did desire, and made compacts with women to lie with them: and that there were some Demons, which the French call Dusii, that did continually attempt this way of lust.
Chapter XX Of the annoyance of evil spirits, and the preservation we have by good spirits.
It is the common opinion of Divines, that all evil spirits are of that nature, that they hate God as well as men; therefore Divine providence hath set over us more pure spirits, with whom he hath entrusted us, as with Shepheards [shepherds], and Governours, that they should daily help us, and drive away evil spirits from us, and curb, and restrain them, that they should not hurt us as much as they would; as is read in Tobia, that Raphael did apprehend the Demon called Asmodeus, and bound him in the wilderness of the upper Egypt. Of these Hesiod saith, there are 30000 of Jupiters immortall spirits living on the Earth, which are the keepers of mortall men, who that they might observe justice and mercifull deeds, having clothed themselves with air, go every where on the Earth. For there is no Prince, nor potentate could be safe, nor any woman continue uncorrupted, no man in this valley of ignorance could come to the end appointed to him by God, if good spirits did not secure us; Or if evill spirits should be permitted to satisfie the wils [wills] of men; As therefore amongst the good spirits there is a proper keeper or protector deputed to every one, corroborating the spirit of the man to good; so of evil spirits there is sent forth an enemy ruling over the flesh, and desire thereof; and the good spirit fights for us as a preserver against the enemie [enemy], and flesh; Now man betwixt these contenders is the midle [middle], and left in the hand of his own Counsell, to whom he will give victory; we cannot therefore accuse Angels, if they do not bring the Nations entrusted to them, to the knowledge of the true God, to true piety, and suffer them to fall into errours and perverse worship: but it is to be imputed to themselves, who have of their own accord declined from the right path, adhering to the spirits of errours, giving victory to the Devill; for it is in the hand of man to adhere to whom he please, and overcome whom he will, by whom, if once the enemy the devill be overcome, he is made his servant, and being overcome, cannot fight any more with another, as a wasp that hath lost his sting: to which opinion Origen assents in his book Periarchon, concluding, that the Saints fighting against evil spirits, and overcoming, do lessen their armie [army], neither can he that is overcome by any, molest any more; As therefore there is given to every man a good spirit, so also there is given to every man an evil Diabolicall spirit, whereof each seeks an union with our spirit, and endeavours to attract it to it self, and to be mixed with it, as wine with water; the good indeed, through all good works conformable to it self, change us into Angels, by uniting us, as it is writ of John Baptist in Malachie: Behold I send mine Angel before thy face: of which transmutation, and union it is writ elsewhere; He which adheres to God is made one spirit with him. An evil spirit also by evil works, studies to make us conformable to it self, and to unite, as Christ saith of Judas, Have not I chosen twelve, & one of you is a devil? And this is that which Hermes saith, when a spirit hath influence upon the soul of man, he scatters the seed of his own notion, whence such a soul being sowen [sown] with seeds, and full of fury, brings forth thence wonderfull things, and whatsoever are the offices of spirits: for when a good spirit hath influence upon a holy soul, it doth exalt it to the light of wisdom; but an evil spirit being transfused into a wicked soul, doth stir it up to theft, to man-slaughter, to lusts, and whatsoever are the offices of evil spirits. Good spirits (as saith Iamblicus) purge the souls most perfectly; and some bestow upon us other good things; they being present do give health to the body, vertue to the soul, security to the soul, what is mortall in us they take away, cherish heat, and make it more efficacious to life, and by an Harmonie [harmony] do alwayes infuse light into an intelligible mind. But whether there be many keepers of a man, or one alone, Theologians differ amongst themselves; we think there are more, the Prophet saying, he hath given his Angels a charge concerning thee, that they should keep thee in all thy wayes: which as saith Hierome, is to be understood of any man, as well as of Christ. All men therefore are governed by the ministry of divers Angels, and are brought to any degree of vertue, deserts, and dignity, who behave themselves worthy of them; but they which carry themselves unworthy of them are deposed, and thrust down, as well by evil spirits, as good spirits, unto the lowest degree of misery, as their evil merits shall require: but they that are attributed to the sublimer Angels, are preferred before other men, for Angels having the care of them, exalt them, and subject others to them by a certain occult power; which although neither of them perceive, yet he that is subjected, feels a certain yoke of presidency, of which he cannot easily acquit himself, yea he fears and reverenceth that power, which the superiour Angels make to flow upon superiours, and with a certain terrour bring the inferiours into a fear of presidency. This did Homer seem to be sensible of, when he saith, that the Muses begot of Jupiter, did alwayes as inseparable companions assist the Kings begot of Jupiter, who by them were made venerable, and magnificent. So we read that M. Antonius being formerly joyned [joined] in singular friendship with Octavus Augustus, were wont alwayes to play together. But when as alwayes Augustus went away conquerour, that a certain Magician Counselled M. Antonius thus. O Antony, what dost thou do with that yong [young] man? shun, and avoid him, for although thou art elder then he, and art more skillfull then he, and art better descended then he, and hast endured the Wars of more Emperours, yet thy Genius doth much dread the Genius of this yong man, and thy Fortune flatter his Fortune; unless thou shalt shun him, it seemeth wholly to decline to him. Is not the Prince like other men, how should other men fear, and reverence him, unless a Divine terrour should exalt him, and striking a fear into others, depress them, that they should reverence him as a Prince? Wherefore we must endeavour, that being purified by doing well, and following sublime things, and choosing opportune times, and seasons, we he entrusted or committed to a degree of sublimer, and more potent Angels, who taking care of us, we may deservedly be preferred before others.
Chapter XXI Of obeying a proper Genius, and of the searching out the nature thereof.
As every Region in the Celestials hath a certain Star, and Celestiall image which hath influence upon it before others: so also in supercelestials doth it obtain a certain Intelligence set over it, and guarding it, with infinite other ministring spirits of its order, all which are called by a common name, the Sons of Elohim Sabaoth úåàáö íéäìà éðá i.e. Sons of the God of hosts. Hence as often as the most high doth deliberate of War, or slaughter, or the desolation of any Kingdom, or subduing of any people in these inferiours, then no otherwise, when these shall come upon the earth, there proceeds a conflict of these spirits above, as it is written in Isaiah, The Lord of Hosts shall visit the Army of the high, in the heavens; and the Kings of the earth, in the earth; of which conflicts of spirits and presidents, we read also in Daniel, viz. of the Prince of the Kingdom of the Persians, of the Prince of the Grecians, of the Prince of the peoplc of Israel; and of their conflict amongst themselves, of which also Homer seemed formerly to be sensible of, when he sang,
Great was the rumour in the Court above
When that the gods War mutually did move:
When Phoebus did to Neptune battle give,
Pallas with Mars the god of War did strive,
Diana did withstand in hostile way
Juno, and Latona did for to slay
Mercury attempt. —–
Nevertheless seeing there he in every region spirits of all sorts, yet they are more powerfull there which are of the same order with the president of that region. So in the Solary region, the Solary spirits are most potent; in the Lunary, Lunary, and so of the rest. And hence it is that various events of our affairs offer themselves, & follow us in places and provinces, being more Fortunate in one place more then another, where viz. the Demon our Genius shall receive more power, or we shall there obtain a more powerfull Demon of the same order. So Solary men, if they shall travell into a Solary region, or province, shall he made there far more fortunate, because there they shall have more powerfull, and more advantagious conducters or Genii, by the present aid of whom they shall be brought beyond expectation, and their own power, to happy events. Hence it is that the choice of a place, region, or time doth much conduce to the happiness of life where any one shall dwell, & frequent, according to the nature & instinct of his own Genius. Sometimes also the change of the name doth conduce to the same, for whereas the properties of names being the significators of things themselves, do as it were in a glass declare the conditions of their forms; thence it comes to pass, that names being changed, the things oftentimes are changed. Hence the sacred writ doth not without cause bring in God, whilest he was blessing Abram, and Jacob, changing their names, calling the one Abraham, and the other Israel. Now the ancient Phylosophers [philosophers] teach us to know the nature of the Genius of every man, by Stars, their influx, and aspects, which are potent in the Nativity of any one; but with instructions so divers, and differing amongst themselves, that it is much difficult to understand the mysteries of the heavens by their directions. For Porphyrie [Porphyry] seeks the Genius of the Star, which is the Lady of the Nativity: but Maternus either from thence, or from the Planets, which had then most dignities, or from that into whose house the Moon was to enter after that, which at the birth of the man it doth retain. But the Caldeans [Chaldeans] enquire after the Genius, either from the Sun above, or from the Moon. But others, and many Hebrews think it is to be enquired after from some corner of the heaven, or from all of them. Others seek a good Genius from the eleventh house, which therefore they call a good Demon; but an evil Genius from the sixth, which therefore they call an evil Demon. But seeing the inquisition of these is laborious, & most occult, we shall far more easily enquire into the nature of our Genius from our selves, observing those things which the instinct of nature doth dictate to, and the heaven inclines us to from our infancy, being distracted with no contagion, or those things which the minde, the soul being freed from vain cares, and sinister affections, and impediments being removed, doth suggest to us: These without all doubt are the perswasions [persuasions] of a Genius which is given to every one from their birth, leading, and perswading us to that whither the Star thereof inclines us to.
Chapter XXII That there is a threefold keeper of man, and from whence each of them proceed.
Every man hath a threefold good Demon, as a proper keeper, or preserver, the one whereof is holy, another of the nativity, and the other of profession. The holy Demon is one, according to the Doctrine of the Egyptians, assigned to the rationall soul, not from the Stars or Planets, but from a supernaturall cause, from God himself, the president of Demons, being universall, above nature: This doth direct the life of the soul, & doth alwaies put good thoughts into the minde, being alwaies active in illuminating us, although we do not alwaies take notice of it; but when we are purified, and live peaceably, then it is perceived by us, then it doth as it were speak with us, and communicates its voyce [voice] to us, being before silent, and studyeth daily to bring us to a sacred perfection. Also by the ayd [aid] of this Demon we may avoid the malignity of a Fate, which being religiously worshipped by us in honesty, and sanctity, as we know was done by Socrates; the Pythagoreans think we may be much helped by it, as by dreams, and signs, by diverting evill things, and carefully procuring good things. Wherefore the Pythagorians were wont with one consent to pray to Jupiter, that he would either preserve them from evill, or shew them by what Demon it should be done. Now the Demon of the nativity, which is called the Genius, doth here descend from the disposition of the world, and from the circuits of the Stars, which were powerfull in his nativity. Hence there be some that think, when the soul is coming down into the body, it doth out of the quire of the Demons naturally choose a preserver to it self, nor only choose this guide to it self, but hath that willing to defend it. This being the executor, and keeper of the life, doth help it to the body, and takes care of it, being Communicated to the body, and helps a man to that very office, to which the Celestials have deputed him, being born. Whosoever therefore have received a fortunate Genius, are made thereby vertuous in their works, efficacious, strong, and prosperous. Wherefore they are called by the Phylosophers [philosophers] fortunate, or luckily born. Now the Demon of profession is given by the Stars, to which such a profession, or sect, which any man hath professed, is subjected, which the soul, when it began to make choyce [choice] in this body, and to take upon itself dispositions, doth secretly desire. This Demon is changed, the profession being changed; then according to the dignity of the profession, we have Demons of our profession more excellent and sublime, which successively take care of man, which procures a keeper of profession, as he proceeds from vertue to vertue. When therefore a profession agrees with our nature, there is present with us a Demon of our profession like unto us, and sutable [suitable] to our Genius, and our life is made more peaceable, happy, and prosperous: but when we undertake a profession unlike, or contrary to our Genius, our life is made laborious, and troubled with disagreeing patrons. So it falls out that some profit more in any science, or art, or office, in a little time, and with little pains, when another takes much pains, and studies hard, and all in vain: and, although no science, art, or vertue be to be contemned, yet that thou maist live prosperously, carry on thy affairs happily; in the first place know thy good Genius, and thy nature, and what good the celestiall disposition promiseth thee, and God the distributor of all these, who distributes to each as he pleaseth, and follow the beginnings of these, profess these, be conversant in that vertue to which the most high distributor doth elevate, and lead thee, who made Abraham excell in justice and clemency, Isaac with fear, Jacob with strength, Moses with meekness and Miracles, Joshua in war, Phinias n zeal, David in religion, and victory, Solomon in knowledge and fame, Peter in faith, John in charity, Jacob in devotion, Thomas in prudence, Magdalen in contemplation, Martha in officiousness. Therefore in what vertue thou thinkest thou canst most easily be a proficient in, use diligence to attain to the height thereof; that thou maist excell in one, when in many thou canst not: but in the rest endeavour to be as great a proficient as thou canst: but if thou shalt have the overseers of nature, and religion agreeable, thou shalt finde a double progress of thy nature, and profession: but if they shall be disagreeing, follow the better, for thou shalt better perceive at some time a preserver of an excellent profession, then of nativity.
Chapter XXIII Of the tongue of Angels, and of their speaking amongst themselves, and with us.
We might doubt whether Angels, or Demons, since they be pure spirits, use any vocal speech, or tongue amongst themselves, or to us; but that Paul in some place saith, If I speak with the tongue of men, or angels: but what their speech or tongue is, is much doubted by many. For many think that if they use any Idiome, it is Hebrew, because that was the first of all, and came from heaven, and was before the confusion of languages in Babylon, in which the Law was given by God the Father, and the Gospell was preached by Christ the Son, and so many Oracles were given to the Prophets by the Holy Ghost: and seeing all tongues have, and do undergo various mutations, and corruptions, this alone doth alwaies continue inviolated. Moreover an evident sign of this opinion is, that though each Demon, and Intelligence do use the speech of those nations, with whom they do inhabit, yet to them that understand it, they never speak in any Idiome, but in this alone. But now how Angels speak it is hid from us, as they themselves are. Now to us that we may speak, a tongue is necessary with other instruments, as are the jaws, palate, lips, teeth, throat, lungs, the aspera arteria, and muscles of the breast, which have the beginning of motion from the soul. But if any speak at a distance to another, he must use a louder voice; but if neer, he whispers in his ear: and if he could be coupled to the hearer, a softer breath would suffice; for he would slide into the hearer without any noise, as an image in the eye, or glass. So souls going out of the body, so Angels, so Demons speak: and what man doth with a sensible voyce [voice], they do by impressing the conception of the speech in those to whom they speak, after a better manner then if they should express it by an audible voyce. So the Platonists say that Socrates perceived his Demon by sense indeed, but not of this body, but by the sense of the etheriall body concealed in this: after which manner Avicen believes the Angels were wont to be seen, and heard by the Prophets: That instrument, whatsoever the vertue be, by which one spirit makes known to another spirit what things are in his minde, is called by the Apostle Paul the tongue of Angels. Yet oftentimes also they send forth an audible voyce, as they that cryed at the ascension of the Lord, Ye men of Galile [Galilee], why stand ye there gazing into the heaven? And in the old law they spake with divers of the Fathers with a sensible voyce, but this never but when they assumed bodies. But with what senses those spirits and Demons hear our invocations, and prayers, and see our ceremonies, we are altogether ignorant.
For there is a spirituall body of Demons everywhere sensible by nature, so that it toucheth, seeth, heareth, without any medium, and nothing can be an impediment to it: Yet neither do they perceive after that manner as we do with different organs, but haply as sponges drink in water, so do they all sensible things with their body, or some other way unknown to us; neither are all animals endowed with those organs; for we know that many want ears, yet we know they perceive a sound, but after what manner we know not.
Chapter XXIV Of the names of Spirits, and their various imposition; and of the Spirits that are set over the Stars, Signs, Corners of the Heaven, and the Elements.
Many and divers are the names of good spirits, and bad: but their proper, and true names, as those of the Stars, are known to God alone, who only numbers the multitude of Stars, and calls them all by their names, whereof none can be known by us but by divine revelation, and very few are expressed to us in the sacred writ. But the masters of the Hebrews think that the names of the angels were imposed upon them by Adam, according to that which is written, The Lord brought all things which he had made unto Adam, that he should name them, and as he called any thing, so the name of it was. Hence the Hebrew Mecubals think, together with Magicians, that it is in the power of man to impose names upon Spirits, but of such a man only who is dignified, and elevated to this vertue by some divine gift, or sacred authority: but because a name that may express the nature of divinity, or the whole vertue of angelical essences cannot be made by any humane voyce, therefore names for the most part are put upon them from their works, signifying some certain office, oe effect, which is required by the quire of Spirits: which names then no otherwise then oblations, and sacrifices offered to the Gods, obtain efficacy and vertur to draw any spirituall substance from above or beneath, for to make any desired effect. I have seen, and known some writing on virgin parchment the name and seal of some spirit in the hour of the Moon: which when afterward he gave to be devoured by a water-frog, and had muttered over some verse, the frog being let go into the water, rains, ans shours [showers] presently followed. I saw also the same man inscribing the name of another Spirit with the seal thereof in the hour of Mars, which was given to a Crow, who being let go, after a verse muttered over, presently there followed from that corner of the heaven, whither he flew, lightnings, shakings, and horrible thunders, with thick clouds: Neither were those names of spirits of an unknown tongue, neither did they signifie any thing else but their offices. Of this kinde are the names of those angels, Raziel, Gabriel, Michael, Raphael, Haniel, which is as much as the vision of God, the vertue of God, the strength of God, the medicine of God, the glory of God. In like manner in the offices of evill Demons are read their names, a player, deceiver, a dreamer, fornicator, and many such like. So we receive from many of the ancient Fathers of the Hebrews the names of angels set over the planets and signs: over Saturn, Zaphiel [Zaphkiel]; over Jupiter, Zadkiel; over Mars, Camael; over the Sun, Raphael; over Venus, Haniel; over Mercury, Michael; over the Moon, Gabriel. These are those seven Spirits which always stand before the face of God, to whom is entrusted the disposing of the whole celestial, and terrene Kingdoms, which is under the Moon. For these (as say the more curious Theologians) govern all things by a certain vicissitude of hours, daies [days], and years, as the Astrologers teach concerning the planets which they set over; which therefore Mercurius Trismegistus calls the seven governors of the world, who by the heavens, as by instruments, distribute the influences of all the Stars and signs upon these inferiours. Now there are some that do ascribe them to the Stars, by names somewhat differing, saying, that over Saturn is set an intelligence called Oriphiel; over Jupiter Zachariel; over Mars Zamael; over the Sun Michael; over Venus Anael; over Mercury Raphael; over the Moon Gabriel. And every one of these governs the world 354 years, and four months; and the government begins from the Intelligence of Saturn; afterward in order, the Intelligences of Venus, Jupiter, Mercury, Mars, the Moon, the Sun raign, and then the government returns to the Spirit of Saturn. Abbas Tritemius [Trithemius] writ to Maximilian Caesar a speciall Treatise concerning these, which he that will thoroughly examine, may from thence draw great knowledge of future times. Over the twelve Signs are set these, viz. over Aries Malchidael; over Taurus Asmodel; over Gemini Ambriel; over Cancer Muriel; over Leo Verchiel; over Virgo Hamaliel; over Libra Zuriel; over Scorpio Barchiel; over Sagittarius Advachiel; over Capricorn Hanael; over Aquarius Cambiel; over Pisces Barchiel. Of these Spirits set over the planets, and Signs, John made mention in the Revelation, speaking of the former in the beginning; And of the seven Spirits which are in the presence of the Throne of God, which I finde are set over the seven planets, [the latter] in the end of the book, where he describes the platform of the heavenly City, saying that in the twelve gates thereof were twelve Angels. There are again twenty eight Angels, which rule in the twenty eight mansions of the Moon, whose names in order are these: Geniel, Enediel, Amixiel, Azariel, Gabiel, Dirachiel, Seheliel [Scheliel?], Amnediel, Barbiel, Ardefiel, Neciel, Abdizuel, Jazeriel, Ergediel, Ataliel, Azeruel, Adriel, Egibiel, Amutiel, Kyriel, Bethnael, Geliel, Requiel, Abrinael, Aziel, Tagriel, Alheniel, Amnixiel. There are also four Princes of the Angels, which are set over the four winds, and over the four parts of the world, whereof Michael is set over the Eastern wind; Raphael over the Western; Gabriel over the Northern; Nariel, who by some is called Uriel, is over the Southern. There are also assigned to the Elements these, viz. to the air Cherub; to the water Tharsis; to the Earth Ariel; to the Fire Seruph, or according to Philon, Nathaniel. Now every one of these Spirits is a great Prince, and hath much power and freedome in the dominion of his own planers, and signs, and in their times, years, months, daies, and hours, and in their Elements, and parts of the world, and winds. And every one of them rules over many legions; and after the same manner amongst evil spirits, there are four which as most potent Kings are set over the rest, according to the four parts of the world, whose names are these, viz. Urieus, King of the East; Amaymon, King of the South; Paymon, King of the West; Egin, King of the North, which the Hebrew Doctors perhaps call more rightly thus, Samuel, Azazel, Azael, Mahazuel, under whom many other rule as princes of legions, and rulers; also there are innumerable Demons of private offices. Moreover the ancient Theologians of the Greeks reckon up six Demons, which they call Telchines, others Alastores; which bearing ill will to men, taking up water out of the river Styx with their hand, sprinkle it upon the earth, whence follow Calamities, plagues, and famines; and these are said to be Acteus, Megalezius, Ormenus, Lycus, Nicon, Mimon. But he which desires to know exactly the distinct names, offices, places, and times of Angels, and evil Demons, let him enquire into the book of Rabbi Simon of the Temples. And in his book of lights, and in his treatise of the greatness of stature, and in the treatise of the Temples of Rabbi Ishmael, and in lmost all the Commentaries of his book of formation, and he shall finde it written at large concerning them.
Chapter XXV How the Hebrew Mecubals draw forth the sacred names of Angels out of the sacred writ, and of the seventie two [seventy-two] Angels, which bear the name of God, with the Tables of Ziruph, and the Commutations of letters, and numbers.
There are also other sacred names of good, and evil Spirits deputed to each offices, of much greater efficacy then the former, which the Hebrew Mecubals drew forth out of sacred writ, according to that art which they teach concerning them; as also certain names of God are drawn forth out of certain places: the generall rule of these is, that wheresoever any thing of divine essence is expressed in the Scripture, from that place the name of God may rightly be gathered; but in what place soever in the Scripture the name of God is found expressed, there mark what office lies under that name. Wheresoever therefore the Scripture speaks of the office or work of any spirit, good, or bad, from thence the name of that spirit, whether good, or bad, may be gathered; this unalterable rule being observed, that of good spirits we receive the names of good spirits, of evill the names of evill: & let us not confound black with white, nor day with night, nor light with darkness: which by these verses, as by an example, is manifest. Let them be as dust before the face of the winde, and let the Angel of the Lord scatter them: Let their waies [ways] be darkness, And slippery, and let the angel of the Lord pursue them.
ääø äåäé êàìàîå çåø éðôì õåîë åéäé
íôãø äéäé êàìîå úå÷ì÷ìçå êùç íëøã éäé
In the 35. Psalme with the Hebrews, but with us the 34, out of which the names of those angels are drawn, ìàãéî , & ìàøéî Mirael, of the order of warriers [warriors]. So out of that verse, Thou shalt set over him the wicked, and Satan shall stand at his right hand. Out of the Psalm 109. with the Hebrews, but with the Latines the 108:
åðéîé ìà øîàé ïèùå òùø åéìò ã÷ôä
is extracted the name of the evill spirit Schii éòéù which signifies a spirit that is a work of engines. There is a certain text in Exodus conteined in three verses, whereof every one is writ with seventy two letters, beginning thus: The first, Vajisa òñéå the second, Vajabo àáéå : the third, Vajot èéå : which are extended into one line, viz. the first, and third from the left hand to the right, but the middle in a contrary order, beginning from the right to the left, is terminated on the left hand: then each of the three letters being subordinate the one to the other, make one name, which are seventy two names, which the Hebrews call Schemhamphorae: to which if the divine name El ìà or Jah äé be added, they produce seventy two trissyllable names of angels, whereof every one carries the great name of God, as it is written: My Angel shall go before thee; observe him, for my name is in him. And these are those that are set over the seventy two Celestial quinaries, and so many Nations, and tongues, and joynts [joints] of mans body, and cooperate with the seventy two seniors of the Synagogue, and so many disciples of Christ: and their names according to the extraction which the Cabalists make, are manifest in this following table, according to one manner which we have spoke of. Now there are many other manner or waies of making Schemhamphorae out of those verses, as when all three are in a right order written one after the other from the right to the left, besides those which are extracted by the tables of Ziruph, and the tables of commutations, of which we made mention above. And because these tables serve for all names, as well divine, as angelical, we shall therefore subjoyn them to this Chapter.
These are the seventy two Angels, bearing the name of God, Schemhamphoræ.
The Right Table of the Commutations.
The Averse Table of the Commutations.
Chapter XXVI Of finding out of the names of spirits, and Genius’s from the disposition of Celestiall bodies.
The ancient Magicians did teach an art of finding out the name of a spirit to any desired effect, drawing it from the disposition of the heaven; as for example, any Celestiall Harmonie [harmony] being proposed to thee for the making an image or ring, or any other work to be done under a certain constellation; if thou will finde out the spirit that is the ruler of that work; the figure of the heaven being erected, cast forth letters in their number and order from the degree of the ascendent, according to the succession of signes through each degree by filling the whole circle of the heaven: then those letters which fall into the places of the Stars the aid whereof thou wouldest use, being according to the number, and powers of those Stars, marked without into number, and order, make the name of a good spirit: but if thou shalt do so from the beginning of a degree falling against the progresse of the signes, the resulting spirit shall be evil. By this art some of the Hebrew and <I<>Caldean [Chaldean] masters teach that the nature, and name of any Genius may be found out; as for example, the degree of the ascendent of any ones, nativity being known, and the other corners of the heaven being Coequated, then let that which had the more dignities of Planets in those four corners which the Arabians call Almutez, be first observed amongst the rest: and according to that in the second place, that which shall be next to it in the number of dignities, and so by order the rest of them, which obtain any dignitie [dignity] in the foresaid corners: this order being used, thou maist know the true place, & degree of them in the heaven, beginning from the degree of the ascendent through each degree according to the order of the signs to cast 22. of the letters of the Hebrews; Then what letters shall fall into the places of the aforesaid Stars, being marked, and disposed according to the order found out above in the Stars, & rightly joyned [joined] together according to the rules of the Hebrew tongue, make the name of a Genius: to which, according to the custome, some Monosyllable name of Divine omnipotency, viz. El, or Iah is subjoyned. But if the casting of the letters be made from an angle of the falling, and against the succession of signs, and the letters which shall fall in the Nadir (that is the opposite point) of the aforesaid Stars, be after that order as we said, joyned together, shall make the name of an evil Genius. But the Chaldeans proceed another way; for they take not the Almutez of the corners, but the Almutez of the eleventh house, and do in all things as hath been said. Now they finde out an evil Genius from the Almutez of the angle of the twelfth house, which they call an evil spirit, casting from the degree of the falling against the progress of the signs. There are also the Arabians, and many others, and some Hebrews, who finde out the name of a Genius by the places of the five Hylegians, and making projection alwayes from the beginning of Aries, and the letters being found out according to the order of Hylegians with the Astrologers, being reduced into a known order, and being joyned together, make the name of a good Genius: but they draw the name of an evil Genius from the opposite Hylegian places, projection being made from the last degree of Pisces against the order of signs. But other some do not take the places of Hylegians, but the places of Almutez upon the five Hylegians making projection from an Horoscope, as abovesaid: and these names being thus distributed according to the proportioned numbers to the Starry account, compacted or joyned, and changed letters, although unknown in sound, and significative, we must of necessity confess may do more by the secret of the chiefest Philosophy in a magick work, then significative names, whilest the mind being astonished at the obscurity of them, and deeply intent, firmly believing that something Divine is under it, doth reverently pronounce these words, and names, although not understood, to the glory of God, captivating himself with a spirituall affection of piety, in the obedience of him.
Chapter XXVII Of the calculating Art of such names by the tradition of Cabalists.
There is yet another Art of these kinds of names, which they call calculatory, and it is made by the following tables, by entring [entering] with some sacred, Divine, or Angelicall name, in the column of letters descending; by taking those letters which thou shalt find in the common angles under their Stars, and Signs: which being reduced into order, the name of a good spirit is made of the nature of that Star, or Sign, under which thou didst enter: but if thou shalt enter in the column ascending, by taking the common angles above the Stars, and Signs marked in the lowest line, the name of an evil spirit is made. And these are the names of spirits of any order, or heaven ministring [ministering]; as of good, so of bad, which thou maist after this manner multiply into nine names of so many orders, in as much as thou maist by entring with one name draw forth another of a spirit of a superior order out of the same, as well of a good, as bad one. Yet the beginning of this calculation depends upon the names of God; for every word hath a vertue in Magick, in as much as it depends on the word of God, and is thence framed. Therefore we must know that every Angelicall name must proceed from some primary name of God. Therefore Angels are said to bear the name of God, according to that which is written, because my name is in him. Therefore that the names of good Angels may be discerned from the names of bad, there is wont oftentimes to be added some name of Divine omnipotency, as EI, or On, or Jah, or Jod, and to be pronounced together with it: and because Jah is a name of beneficence, and Jod the name of a deity, therefore these two names are put only to the names of angels; but the name El, because it imports power, and vertue, is therefore added not only to good but bad spirits, for neither can evil spirits either subsist, or do anything without the vertue of El, God. But we must know that common angles of the same Star and Sign are to be taken, unless entrance be made with a mixt [mixed] name, as are the names of Genii, and those of which it hath bin spoken in the preceding Ch. which are made of the dispositions of the heaven, according to the harmony of divers Stars. For as often as the table is to be entred with these, the common angle is to be taken under the Star, or Sign of him that enters. There are moreover some that do so extend those tables, that they think also if there be an entrance made with the name of a Star, or office, or any desired effect, a Demon whether good, or bad, serving to that office, or effect, may be drawn out. Upon the same account they that enter with the proper name of any person, beleeve [believe] that they can extract the names of the Genii, under that Star which shall appear to be over such a person, as they shall by his Physiognomy, or by the Passions and inclinations of his mind, and by his profession, and fortune, know him to be Martial, or Saturnine, or Solarie, or of the nature of any other Star. And although such kinde of primary names have none or little power by their signification, yet such kind of extracted names, and such as are derived from them, are of very great efficacy; as the rayes of the Sun collected in a hollow glass, do indeed most strongly burn, the Sun it self being scarce warm. Now there is an order of letters in those tables under the Stars, and Signs, almost like that which is with the Astrologers, of tens, elevens, twelves. Of this calculatory Art Alfonsus Cyprius once wrote, and I know who elss, and also fitted it to Latine Characters; But because the letters of every tongue, as we shewed in the first book, have in their number, order, and figure a Celestiall and Divine originall, I shall easily grant this calculation concerning the names of spirits to be made in only by Hebrew letters, but also by Chaldean, and Arabick, Ægyptian [Egyptian], Greek, Latine, and any other, the tables being righty made after the imitation of the presidents. But here it is objected by many, that it falls out, that in these tables men of a differing nature, and Fortune, do oftentimes by reason of the sameness of name obtain the same Genius of the same name. We must know therefore that it must not be thought absurd that the same Demon may he separated from any one soul, and the same be set over more. Besides, as divers men have many times the same name, so also spirits of divers offices and natures may be noted or marked by one name, by one and the same seal, or Character, yet in a divers respect: for as the serpent doth sometimes typifie Christ, and sometimes the devill; so the same names, and the same seals may be applied sometimes to the order of a good Demon, sometimes of a bad. Lastly, the very ardent intension [intention] of the invocator, by which our intellect is joyned to the separated intelligencies, causeth that we have sometimes one spirit, sometimes another, although called upon under the same name, made obsequious to us.
There follow the tables of the calculation of the names of spirits, good and bad, under the presidency of the 7. Planets, and under the order of the 12. Militant Signs.